67 open source tools and resources for the Internet of Things (IoT

67 open source tools and resources for the Internet of Things (IoT

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25.Distributed Services Architecture(DSA)

openHAB offers a framework based onOpen Services Gateway Initiative(OSGi). openHAB has a modular architecture that allows contributors to add devices, including legacy protocol-based devices, standards, and component support, which are ideal for connected homes, into a single solution that allows overarching automation rules and uniform user interfaces.

On the middleware side, OpenIoT creates an open source middleware for pulling information from sensor clouds, without having to worry about what sensors are used. It explores efficient ways to use and managecloud environmentsfor IoT entities and resources, such as sensors, actuators, and smart devices, and offers a cloud- and utility-based sensing-as-a-service model via an adaptive middleware framework for deploying and providing services in cloud environments.

HGI is a consortium of major broadband service providers (Deutsche Telekom, Telecom Italia, NTT) and home consumer electronics manufacturers to build a smart home ecosystem. HGI publishes requirements and test plans for home gateways and wireless home networks with the goal of enabling applications, home gateway middleware, and home-network-based devices to connect seamlessly.

Amyx+McKinseyconducted an industry-wide study on the open source projects related to IoT. Our goal was to obtain a cross-section of open source projects. Our scope was not to reach 100-percent coverage but rather to get a diverse representation of open source IoT projects.

SiteWhere enables businesses to create IoT solutions without custom coding. Devices can be assigned to physical or logical assets via pluggable, commercial, off-the-shelf modules. SiteWhere supports numerous protocols, such as MQTT, JSON, AMQP, XMPP, Stomp, JMS, and WebSockets, while providing published APIs. Event data can be stored in the cloud or on local servers. The solution is fault tolerant, scalable, and cost efficient. Communication with devices is bidirectional and asynchronous. This allows SiteWhere to manage solutions that require very large numbers of devices and event cycles. SiteWhere provides interfaces for customized event triggering, searching, and analytics, as well as out-of-the-box support for rapidly integrating customized device data into other platforms.

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For most businesses, the top priority in building an IoT solution is interoperability. These standards and protocols enable systems and devices to find each another and communicate across profiles, such as mobile, wearables, in-vehicle infotainment, TV, cameras, printers, and appliances.

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Another market requirement we hear about often is the ability to monetize based on utility. Companies need the ability to charge accordinglybe it by RPM, acceleration, or the number of times the front loader was raised.

High-volume transactions present a big challenge, but what about those companies looking to implement real-time analytics? How can firms tackle these challenges? One solution is an in-memory data grid, which primarily relies on main memory for computer-data storage to access data in memory. The following two projects support enterprise-grade, in-memory computing solutions for high-volume transactions, real-time analytics, and hybrid data processing.

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OpenRemote is a middleware solution with a focus on home automation, commercial buildings, public spaces, and healthcare. OpenRemote is protocol-agnostic and operates on off-the-shelf hardware. OpenRemotes architecture enables fully autonomous and user-independent intelligent buildings. End user control interfaces are available for iOS, Android, and web-browser-based devices. User interface design, installation management, and configuration can be handled remotely with OpenRemotes cloud-based design tools.

Vendors of IoT devices want to increase the number of technology ecosystems into which their devices can be integrated without major effort.

Piecing together various components and services is no simple matter. Yet, your stakeholders demand quick benefits. So, how can organizations achieve this?

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On the API side, Zetta, which is built on Node.js, helps link devices with the cloud to create geo-distributed networks. Zetta combines REST APIs, WebSockets, and reactive programming, which is ideal for assembling devices into data-intensive, real-time applications. Zetta powers commercial platforms likeApigee.

Open Garden SDK enables connected devices to connect to the Internet and communicate with other nearby devices using peer-to-peer mesh networking connectivity to share and receive data faster and more efficiently by automatically and actively choosing and switching to the best available network without requiring a users involvement. Open Gardens wireless mesh networking application is supported on Mac, Android, Windows, and soon iOS. Founders claims that more than five million people are using Open Garden.

5.Open Source Hardware Association(OSHWA)

The OIC was founded in July 2014 and has more than 50 members, including Intel, Samsung, Cisco, Acer, Dell, GE, Honeywell, HP, Siemens, Lenovo, and McAfee.

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The best possible way to have a new technology achieve rapid adoption is by combining open standards with a robust open source implementation. Open source implementations provide an easy adoption path with interoperability, and they reduce the cost of entering the market. Developers can spend less time implementing a standard and focus instead on building software that provides the firm with the product-differentiating features customers value.

An open-standard application layer protocol designed for message-oriented middleware, Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) features message orientation, queuing, routing (including point-to-point and publish-and-subscribe), reliability, and security.

OpenWSN is an open source project based at UC Berkeley that supports RPL, a routing protocol designed for low power and wireless sensor networks. The routing layer is responsible for relaying packets across multiple hops separating source and destination nodes. Its divided into a forwarding engine, which uses a routing table to decide which neighbor node is the next hop for that packet, as well as a routing protocol, which populates the routing table.

Xively, acquired byLogMeIn, is most similar to SiteWhere, which is also based on MQTT. SiteWhere claims that their solution is faster to deploy than Xively, with the advantage of deploying in the cloud and the local server.

Yet the benefits of open source technologies for implementing the IoT far outweigh potential limitations. As a matter of fact, many of todays proprietary IoT solutions are using open source technologies under the hood.

Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is an application layer protocol intended for use in resource-constrained Internet devices, such as wireless sensor network nodes, low power sensors, switches, valves, and components controlled or monitored remotely through Internet networks. The key here is resource constrained.

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Whether were talking about live events, remote areas, or agricultural land, a mesh network offers connectivity when theres limited Wi-Fi or cellular service.

The Eclipse Foundation grew out of IBMs Eclipse Project and currently has 228 members, including IBM, Google, Oracle, SAP, Siemens, Texas Instruments, Research in Motion, BMW, Cisco, Dell, Ericsson, HP, Intel, Nokia, and Bosch.

Hazelcast provides in-memory NoSQL, Java caching, data grid, messaging, application scaling, and clustering.

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Based on our evaluation of open source technologies, theres no silver bullet for success in IoT. These projects representcomponents or building blocks,not a single turnkey solution. Additionally, documentation and support vary greatly from project to project.

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Open source solutions allow for this scale, velocity of innovation, and flexibility.

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Consider how businesses can take advantage of the technologies listed above.

Contiki specifically supports IPv6, 6loWPAN, Ripple, CoAP, TCP, HTTP, MQTT, DNS, JSON, and other standards. It has highly efficient memory allocation, full IP networking, low power consumption, and dynamic module loading.

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If you work at a blue-chip, publicly traded company, that doesnt mean you have infinite resources to work with. In many cases, your sponsors want quick solutions that demonstrate benefits before theyre willing to commit to a full-fledged IT project. If you work for a startup, you need to get up and running fast without legions of developers. In both scenarios, open source enables you to do more with less.

The message is simple: Dont start from scratch. Leverage these incredible open source projects and IoT tools to accelerate your product development.

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When we talk about scale and fragmented device environment, nothing poses a greater challenge than smart cities. For those firms looking for a smart city open source toolset, consider these projects for the OS layer.

Chimera IoT is building an IoT platform that allows enterprises to build real-timemobile and web applicationswith usage-based monetization and reconciliation, visible to both the billing company and the user. Its messaging service is based on RabbitMQ, an open source project utilizing AMQP messaging. RabbitMQ supports robust messaging for applications, runs on all major operating systems, and supports many developer platforms.

Fast forward to 2015: were at a pivotal point in human history as we look to open source solutions to accelerate the innovation and adoption of IoT.

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Described by as a lightweight publish-subscribe messaging transport designed for resource-constrained devices and low-bandwidth, high-latency, or unreliable networks, Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is ideal for connections with remote locations requiring a small code footprint and featuring scarce network bandwidth.

For enterprise use, openHAB core framework can be used within the Eclipse SmartHome project. Any changes to the openHAB code base is shared seamlessly with Eclipse SmartHome. Eclipse SmartHome tries to address the fragmented smart home ecosystem with common interfaces and APIs to integrate connectivity, automation, user interfaces, and persistence.

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Standards bodies concerned with interoperability include AllSeen Alliance, with their AllJoyn framework, the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) and their IoTivity open source software framework,Industrial Internet Consortium, OASIS IoT/ M2M, Eclipse, and others that are working on standardization, reference implementations, and certification programs. The standard plus the implementation reference helps to ensure interoperability among products, regardless of the manufacturer or vertical.

Consumers want to use a large variety of consumer technology devices, and they dont want to be limited to using devices from one specific vendor (some smartwatches can only be paired with the same vendors smartphone).

A chapter on IoT open source, based on Amyx+McKinseys research findings, will be included in the upcomingThe Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems Handbookin late 2015.

In order to scale to connect and support 50 to 70 billion sensors in the next decade, potentially millions of routers, gateways, and data servers will be required. Theres no way to achieve these levels of scale without relying on open source frameworks and platforms within that infrastructure. Any other approach will simply be unaffordable.

26.Pico Labs(Kynetx open source assigned to Pico Labs)

Depending on the solution youre building, there may be use cases where Wi-Fi and cellular coverage will be limited. What do you do then?

webinos has 30 project partners across Europe, and its platform consists of an application platform, a connected everything protocol, and a security framework. webinos promotes a single service for every device vision, and supports deployments across a wide range of connected devices. Each gateway consists of a complete end-to-end specification of reference hardware, core platform, and example applications. Supported standards and protocols include HTTPS and JSON-RPC.

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The research methodology consisted of a survey questionnaire, video interviews, and secondary sources from websites, industry reports, and other sources. We found that not all projects open the entire source code for open source collaboration. The degree of open varies from project to project. Others offer a freemium model, or free open source code with the option of professional services for support and advanced tools.

IoTivity from OIC is similar to AllJoyn, but it allows for flexibility to customize for verticals. Its salient capability is in the abstraction transport layer.

8.Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol(XMPP)

Henry Ford put an end to that by successfully challenging Seldens patent and rendering it practically useless. This action also led to the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association and cross-licensing, which allowed US auto manufacturers to develop and share their innovations openly without the threat of litigation between various auto companies. One could say that this approach accelerated the innovation and availability of those new technologies to mainstream consumers.

10.Very Simple Control Protocol(VSCP)

The idea behind open source has been around for years, long before the movement toward open source software in the late 1980seven before computers and well before theInternet of Things(IoT) tools on the market today. In the early days of automobiles, George Selden owned the patent on the two-cycle gas engine, which meant no auto manufacturers could deviate from Seldens basic design and requirements without a lawsuit.

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The AllSeen Alliance describes themselves as dedicated to enabling and driving the widespread adoption of products, systems, and services that support the Internet of Everything with an open, universal development framework supported by a vibrant ecosystem and thriving technical community. It is the broadest cross-industry consortium to date that advances adoption and innovation in the Internet of Everything in homes and industry and looks to expand to healthcare, education, automotive, and enterprise.

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Some startups are using Open Garden and a low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) to create an off-the-grid, wireless messaging network that claims to work over a 20-mile radius and support up to 50 kilobits per second over 50 channels.

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Note that some projects may fall under one or more categories.

RIOT is an open source microkernel operating system that is an alternative to Linux OS. Both RIOT and Contiki focus on sensors with very minimal processing and memory, allowing the full OS capability on tiny sensor devices that otherwise wouldnt be able to support Linux or Android because of the lack of power, memory, and processing. RIOT supports multiple chip architectures, including MSP430, ARM7, Cortex-M0, Cortex-M3, Cortex-M4, and others. Both RIOT and Contiki use RPL mesh network protocols.

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Theres a lot of competition in the smart home space, from organizations such asNESTIcontrol Networks, andPeople Power. For those companies interested in entering the smart home category, what are some open source projects that can give you a head start? Here are two smart home platforms to consider:

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Open source technologiessupport rapid innovation through several advantageous characteristics, allowing for a more natural adoption approach within the enterprise. Its free and generally easy to download, install, and launch. This allows easy exploration of and experimentation with new technologies and enables enterprises to get comfortable with the software on smaller, non-mission-critical projects before any financial commitment is required.

Application developerswant to support a broad range of devices without having to develop vendor-specific code.

OpenIoT has developed use cases for smart agriculture, intelligent manufacturing, urban crowdsensing, smart living, and smart campuses.

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Apublic space case studyis based on the City of Eindhovens use of OpenRemote. They were able to build a crowd management system with workflow and messaging. Data visualization software was integrated with devices, sensors, and subsystems via a local controller or hub. Using street sensors, the system was able to count the number of people passing, measure city sound levels, and use lighting as an actuator. A UI dashboard was available on mobile devices to view crowd management metrics.

There are many drivers behind the popularity of open source:

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A key advantage of open source solutions is that they dont lock your organization in to a proprietary provider. The cost of switching solutions and their vendors is typically high, which holds enterprises and startups hostage to proprietary service providers. Open source mitigates the risk of proprietary solutions being discontinued or no longer supported. How many firms have purchased proprietary software and invested in costly customizations, only to be stuck with an unsupported system or a costly upgrade path?

6.Advanced Message Queuing Protocol(AMQP)

Open source software projects tend to promote innovation faster than proprietary solutions because they draw contributions from a large community of developers. The accumulation of this community participation accelerates the delivery of the key features and ecosystem that enterprises need. The result is that open source usually delivers on-target capabilities faster than proprietary alternatives.

Additionally, open source software enables permissionless innovation, easing concerns over royalties or lawsuits. In particular, open source promotes innovation by integration, where developers create new systems by combining freely available open source components.

Designed for message-oriented middleware based on XML, Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communication protocol developed in 1999 by Jabber, an open source community. XMPP has been extended to use in publish-subscribe systems and IoT applications, such as for the smart grid.

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The most widely used Java-based cache, Ehcache is an open source, standards-based, performance enhancing cache that offloads databases and simplifies scalability. Developed and maintained by Terracotta, Encache scales from in-process, with one or more nodes, while mixing in-process/out-of-process configurations.

The AllSeen Alliance consortium has more than 120 members, including Qualcomm, Microsoft, Panasonic, Sharp, Sony, LG, Cisco, Honeywell, HTC, Lenovo, Haier, TP-LINK, D-Link, ADT, NETGEAR, Symantec, and Verisign.

29.Open Source Internet of Things(OSIOT)

Because a critical market requirement is the ability to scale, firms are looking for platforms that can support large-scale deployments. So, what are some available options for businesses to consider? In order to appreciate these platforms, we need to understand the more popular protocols: MQTT, XMPP, CoAP, and AMQP.

Chimera IoT will be unveiling their open source project for the server design of their messaging system and the device drivers for sensors on Android devices and Texas Instruments SimpleLink Bluetooth Smart SensorTag.

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