Closed platform

The idea was to preferentially offer sponsored content to users when possible.

(2009): No Matter How Big You Are, Diversify or Die.

This strategy became AOLs first good method for selling advertisements.

.Harvard Business School. p.2.doi10.2139/ssrn.1264012

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The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads

Definition of: walled garden. PCmag.com

Mathew Ingram (29 February 2012).How the e-book landscape is becoming a walled garden.

Platform sponsor (design &intellectual property(IP) rights owner)

(Part III of series): Walled gardens look rosy for Facebook, Apple and would-be censors.

Video game consoleshave a long history of walled gardens, with developers needing to purchase licenses to develop for the platform, and, in some cases, needing editorial approval from the console manufacturer prior to publishing games.

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Walled gardens are great when a medium is brand new. Without history and without…

. New York:Penguin Random House. p.210.ISBN17.

tone or style may not reflect theencyclopedic toneused on Wikipedia

Carnoy, David (2 May 2013).Barnes & Noble adds Google Play store to its tablets: The Nook HD and HD+ may not be fully open Android tablets, but theyre now much more open than they were.

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In its time, this method was highly profitable to AOL.

Thomas R. Eisenmann, Geoffrey Parker, Marshall Van Alstyne (2008-08-31).Opening Platforms: How, When and Why?

Nook HDdevices were similarly closed, until May 2013, when BN opened its ecosystem somewhat by permitting users to install the GooglePlay Storeand the variousAndroidapps offered there, including those of rivals, such ComiXology, Kindle,Kobo, and Google itself.

Martin Adolph of ITUs Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) (2011).The world of video games: Trends in video games and gaming.

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and other mobile devices, which are restricted to running pre-approved applications from adigital distributionservice.

Charles Arthur, technology editor (17 April 2012).

A 2008 paper from theHarvard Business Schooldifferentiated a platforms openness/closedness by four aspects and gave example platforms.

During this period,CBSpaid to provide sports content,ABCpaid to provide news, and1-800-Flowerspaid to be the default florist for anyone seeking one.

For example, intelecommunications, the services and applications accessible on a cell phone on any givenwirelesswere formerly tightly controlled by themobile operators. The operators limited the applications and developers that were available on users home portals and home pages.citation neededThus, a service provider might restrict user access to users whose account exhausted the pre-paid money on their account. This has long been a central issue constraining the telecommunications sector, as developers face huge hurdles in making their applications available to end-users.citation needed

Ben Bajarin (1 July 2011).Why Competing With Apple is So Difficult.

noted in The Kindle ecosystem is also Amazons fastest-growing product and could account for more than 10% of the companys revenue next year.

Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013

article, titled How Amazon Makes Money From The Kindle observes: Amazons Kindle is no longer just a product: Its a whole ecosystem. Moreover, as

Daniel Memetic.Escaping the Walled Gardens in the Clouds.

Nicholas Smith terview With Rosabeth Moss Kanter, author of

Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016

In a more extreme example, with the pre-regulated 1970s American telephone system,Bellowned all the hardware (including all phones) and had indirect control over the information sent through their infrastructure. A landmark case wasHush-A-Phone v. United States, wherein Bell unsuccessfully sued a company producing plastic telephone attachments. In the case of Bell, it was an openly government sanctioned and regulatedmonopolyby theCommunications Act of 1934.

Robert A. Burgelman & Carrie C. Oliver (1 August 1997).Electronic Arts in 1995. Stanford Graduate School of Business. pp.16 pages. SM24-PDF-ENG

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Barnes & NobleNookdevices. In late December 2011, B&N began pushing the automatic,over-the-airfirmware update 1.4.1 to Nook Tablets that removed users ability to gainroot accessto the device and the ability tosideloadapplications from sources other than the official Barnes and Noble NOOK Store (withoutmodding).

TheEncrypted Media Extensionsspecification providesAPIsto control playback of encrypted content. This is part of theWorld Wide Web Consortiums web standards and was authored by members working fromGoogleMicrosoftandNetflix.

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Verry, Tim (21 December 2011).Kindle Fire and Nook Tablet Receive Root Access Killing Software Updates.

Closed platform

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Original equipment manufacturer(OEM)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jay Akasie (7 September 2012).With New Kindle, Bezos Proves Ecosystems Matter More Than Hardware

Harvard Business School Entrepreneurial Management Working Paper No. 09-030

network and policies effectively prohibitingactivation of non-Verizon sanctioned devices on their network. Verizon Wireless is frequently noted (and often criticized) for this practice.

In the 1990sAOLdeveloped what was later called its walled gardenmodel of service.

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More generally, a walled garden can refer to a closed or exclusive set of information services provided for users. Similar to a realwalled garden, a user in a walled garden is unable to escape this area unless it is through the designated entry/exit points or the walls are removed.3

Aclosed platform,walled garden, orclosed ecosystem12is asoftware systemwhere the carrier or service provider has control overapplicationscontent, andmedia, and restricts convenient access to non-approved applications or content. This is in contrast to anopen platform, where consumers generally have unrestricted access to applications and content.

Wikipedia articles needing style editing from February 2014

Supply-side user (application developer)

Platform provider (hardware/operating system(OS) bundle)

Smith, Peter (21 December 2011).Kindle Fire and Nook Tablet both get upgraded with reduced functionality.

Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry (18 October 2011).How Amazon Makes Money From The Kindle; Amazons Kindle is no longer just a product: Its a whole ecosystem.

Aspect of closedness/openness of a platform

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